Birthmarks are congenital, benign irregularity and blemishes that we find on our skin. If we notice that significant proportion of newborns have them during the time of birth or may generally appear shortly after the birth. There is no specific sites of these marks on the body and can be appear anywhere. Birthmarks caused by the overgrowth of blood vessels, melanocytes, smooth muscle, fat, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. Some are ugly and embarrassing, and people get them removed for cosmetic concerns.
Types of Birthmarks
There are different types of birthmarks as follows :
1. Cafe-au-lait: The color of these spots is usually the color similar to the colour of coffee means light brown when they appear on the light skin and similar to the color of black coffee if appears on the dark skin. They are usually oval-shaped.
Neurofibromatosis is a genetically-inherited disorder when people have more than four birthmarks on their body. In this disorder, the nerve tissue grows neurofibromas (tumors) that may cause serious damage by pressing on the nerves and other tissues.
2. Congenital melanocytic nevus: They can appear on any part of the body. In general, they are visible on the head and neck in most of the cases. Usually, have a light brown color in white color people, and almost black in darker-skinned people. These marks are of irregular shape, may be flat, raised and lumpy. The marks become proportionally smaller as the baby grows. Sometimes they become darker than before or become hairy during puberty.
3. Mongolian spots: Gray-blue spots are commonly seen in darker skinned people. They appear over the buttocks or lower back. They can look like bruises. They are harmless. Sometimes these spots fade away, but sometimes they don't.
4. Vascular Birthmarks: Sometimes, we see a bunch of extra blood vessels that will clump together, and the clump is clearly visible to you. This is called a vascular birthmark. They vary in size and can be appear on the various parts of the body. Generally flat, and appear pink, reddish and purple in colour.
5. Salmon Patches/Telangiectatic Nevus - They are generally flat and kind of pink or red marks. They may fade away sometimes, but sometimes they don’t. They are basically caused due to expansion(dilations) in the tiny blood vessels (capillaries). These spots are also called as the salmon patch and stork mark/bite.
6. Hemangiomas: They are usually harmless.
Strawberry Hemangiomas - Appear as a red and raised the mark, such as a strawberry mark.
Deep Hemangiomas – Bluish-Purple and make the skin swell and bulge.
The skin may become deformed or stretched if it’s a large mark. These marks grow quickly during the starting months of baby’s life like probably within four to five months and then the growth of these marks slows down. They start to shrink and many eventually fade with the moving time. The one most important thing to notice that they can leave light marks even after fade off.
7. Port Wine Stains: They often visible on the face in most f the cases and color of these spots are similar to the colour of the wine or grape juice. Generally, they are pink, red or purple in color. They do not eventually fade away with the time and can get bigger than before with the growing age of kids. They are caused by abnormal bleeding of blood vessels in the affected area. They can occur anywhere, so as such there are no specific locations of these marks.
What is the Treatment?
We at Royal Lush Skin Hair & Laser clinic under the expertise of Dr. Syed & his team offer various treatment options depending upon stage and underlying cause. Here are the options that include:
1. Corticosteroids: They can be injected directly into the birthmark (hemangioma) or taken orally that will help either to stop it from growing continuously with the growing age or to shrink it.
2. Laser therapy: This technique is commonly used for port wine stains and other birthmarks that are close to the skin's surface without damaging the surrounding surface.
3. Surgery: When other therapies have not worked effectively and the birthmark is causing major medical problems, the doctor may recommend surgery to patients and get them removed.